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#1 Jul-03-2009 10:32:am

sschkaak
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Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4246
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BCHS map of Munsee placenames

In 1994, the Bergen County Historical Society published a map, by Kevin Wright, with over 70 Lenape placenames on it.  In addition, the map included Mr. Wright's interpretations of those names.  His translations don't resonate with me, for the most part.  Here's the list, with his interpretations.  My best guesses are in bold lettering.  To each interpretation I've added a probability percentage, which indicates the likelihood of any given interpretation being correct, as I see it.  99% = near certainty; 75% = highly probable; 50% = maybe, maybe not; 25% = possible, but unlikely; 1% = next to impossible.  All the names are in Munsee (except for Hobokan Hackingh, which is Pidgin Delaware), so I try to use O'Meara's Delaware orthography for my interpretations.  I'm familiar with most of these names, although Wright doesn't give any sources for the forms he lists. 

------------------------------------------------------------

Placename interpretations from Indigenous Place Names in North Eastern New Jersey,

      By Kevin Wright

           BERGEN COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY (1994)

[interpretations in bold lettering by Raymond Whritenour, LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES]



Achkinkeshacky  = achtschingi hacki = ‘stony ground’ or ‘bedrock’  [1%]

     ahkinkeshaki = “sharp ground”  (Nora Thompson Dean interpretation)  [99%]

Ahasimus = schahamuis = ‘crayfish’  [1%]

     nxiisumus / “my younger sibling”  [25%]

Aquenonque = achquonican-onk = ‘at the fish weir’  [1%]

     *axkwaakahnung = “at the stream of lampreys”  [99%]

Aressechhonk = awrasse-hannock = ‘place on the far side of the river’  [1%]

     ???

Aschatking = tachtschaunge and woaktschachne = ‘where a river bends around a hill’ or ‘at the narrows of a river’  [1%]

     *askeetkung = “green (i.e., “unripe”) fertile lowland”  [50%]

Assenmaykapuhg = ashim-mechekupuchk = ‘boulder spring’  [1%]

     *asuni maxkaapoxk = “the stony red rock”  [25%]

Atchunk = wachtschunk = ‘on the hill’  [99%]

     wahchung = “in the hills”  [99%]

Attaquaquamich = ahaquatu-kamike = ‘sheltered country’  [25%]

     ???

Awapough / Aquepuch = wipochk = ‘a bushy place’ / ‘a brush meadow’ or ukque-pek = ‘at the head of the bay’ / ‘at the head of the water’  [1%]

    *ahwaapoxk = “a steep rock”  [75%]

Awassawangh = achwowangeu = ‘steep bank of a river’  [1%]

     *awasaawunge = “the other side of the hill”  [99%]

Campque = kombachquall = ‘foliage’  [1%]

     ???

Cawawacten = unkawa-achtenne = ‘furthermost hill’  [1%]

   *kaawiwahtun = “porcupine mountain”  [50%]

Espating = espan achtenne = ‘raccoon hill’  [1%]

     *uspahtung = “inclined place” or “hillside place”  (following Nora Thompson Dean’s interpretation of Aspetong)  [99%]

Gessawakin = schejawonge = ‘hillside’  [1%]

     ???

Hagsaghkin = pachsegink = ‘in the valley’  [1%]

     *hwakeesahkiing = “in the land of bark”  [50%]

Hobokan Hackingh = hopoakan ehachpink = ‘smoking-pipe place’  [1%]

     hopoakan hakink = “at the land of the tobacco pipe”  [99%]

Hokhokus = mehokhokus = ‘red cedar’  [50%]

     *mehokhokwus = “red cedar” or hakhakwus = “little bottle gourd”  [50%]

Iandakaugh = yu undach / wund-achga = ‘at the hill on this side of the river’  [50%]

     yu wundakw = “here this way”  [50%]

Iapough = japewi = ‘on the river bank’  [75%]

     *yaapeewi= “on the edge of the water”  [75%]

Kackyacktaweke = machkachtawunge = ‘red bank of a river’  [1%]

     ???

Katayack = keweuchak = ‘pine wood’  [1%]

     ???

Kessa Wacky = schejawonge = ‘hill-side’  [1%]

     (same as Gessawakin)

Kindockamack = wendokamike / linhakamike = ‘upland’  [1%]

     ???

Mahikanittuk (on the map, but not interpreted)

     Mahikanihtuk = “River of the Mahicans”  [99%]

Mainaitaing = manahatin = ‘a hill island’  [1%]

     manutoowung = “place of spirit-beings”  [75%]

Manatthans = menach’chen = ‘island’  [1%]

     menaten = “island” or menhattin = “people are sitting together”  [50%]

Maweway = mawewi = ‘assembly’ or ‘meeting-place’  [75%]

     *maaweewii = “assembly”  [75%]

Meghgectecock = masgichteu-cunk = ‘where May-apples grow’  [1%]

     ???

Mesquapsink = muchwoapingus = ‘opposum’  [1%]

     *maskwaapxweesung = “place of strong martens (i.e., fishers)”  [25%]

Micharagrape = miechanak-upeek = ‘white ash pond’  [1%]

     ???

Minckaque = minihacking = ‘corn land’  [1%]

     *mangahkweew = “he is a big tree”  [25%]

Moenachia = menach’hen = ‘island’  [1%]

     *moonahkuy = “dug-up land”  [50%]

Narachong = ne wachtschunk = ‘a hill-top or high point’  [1%]

     ???

Nayack = naiyak = ‘point of land’  [25%]

     *aanayiik = “that which is a trail”  [25%]

Nayacksick = naiyak-sink = ‘on the point of land’  [25%]

     ???

Pachgannik = pachgammak = ‘black walnut’ or ‘hard-shell nuts’  [25%]

     *pakahneek = “noisy stream”  [50%]

Pahaques = pachhaque = ‘to split’ (‘a cleft in the hills’) [1%]

     pohakwees = “one who cuts splints of wood for baskets”  [75%]

Painaraqueing = pemhallachpen = ‘hunting drive’  [1%]

     ???

Painmaikapuka = pemechekapuchk = ‘a large rock’ or ‘boulder’ 

     ???

Panepeck = pemapeek = ‘a body of water with no current’  [25%]

     *paanupeek = “wide water”  [50%]

Paquanake = pokawachnek = ‘by the valley creek’  [75%]  or poquannock = ‘cleared land’  [1%]

     *pohkawahneek = “a creek between two hills”  [75%]

Perampseapus = pakihm sepus = ‘cranberry river’  [1%]

     *pruim shiipoosh = “plum creek” (first word is a Dutch loanword) [50%]

Passayack = pachsa’jeek = ‘valley’  [99%]

     pahsaayeek = “a valley”  [99%]

Patachpain = petapan = ‘daybreak’ (fig., ‘eastward,’ ‘where day dawns’)  [25%]

     ???

Peckwes = pokhaweu = ‘in the hollow’  [1%]

     (same as Pahaques)  [50%]

Pemaraggin = pemhallachpen = ‘hunting drive’  [1%]

     *pumaalakwung = “place of pits all about”  [25%]

Pembrepough = pemapuchk = ‘rock’  [50%]

     *pumaapoxk = “a rock”  [50%]

Pequanock = pokawachnek = ‘by the valley creek’  [75%]  or poquannock = ‘cleared land’  [1%]

     (same as Paquanake)

Perekene = tekenink = ‘in the woods’  [1%]

     pulakuneew = “he takes the outer layer off of him” (e.g., “bark stripper”)  [25%]

Pesceck = meskek = ‘swamp’  [1%]

     seekapaskahk = “wet grass”  [25%]

Pontam = poniton = ‘to remain’ or ‘remnant’  [1%]

     ???

Quacksack = saksak = ‘wild beans’  [1%]

     ???

Quaspeck = poquashpek or quashapek or moschpekat = ‘clear, open water’  [1%]

     ???

Raikghawak (Raikghawah on the map) = lechauwak = ‘a fork’ or ‘a division’  [25%]

     leekuw = “sand”  [50%]

Remapough = lamowo = ‘downward’ or ‘slanting’  [1%]

     *lamapuchk = “under the rock”  [75%]

Rerakenes = lechauhanne = ‘the fork of a river’  [1%]

     (same as Perekene)

Rumachenanck = wundchenneunk = ‘to the westward’  [1%]

     ???

Sanhikans = sankhikan = ‘flint-striker’ or ‘fire-maker’  [99%]

     sanghiikan = “fire-drill”  [99%]

Schickamack = machtschikamik = ‘grave’  [50%]

     *nzukameekw = “black fish”  [50%]

Sequarch = siquonachen = ‘Spring hunt’  [1%]

     chkwal = “frog”  [50%]

Sikakes = assiskuju = ‘marshy ground’  [1%]

     shkaakwus = “skunk”  [75%]

Singanck = schinghaki = ‘a flat country’ or ‘a plateau’  [25%]

     siingeek = “outside corner”  [75%]

Tappaan = thuphanne = ‘cold stream’ [1%]or petapan = ‘daybreak’ (i.e., ‘eastward’ or ‘where day dawns’) [1%]

     *tuphan = ‘rolling stream’  [50%]

Totoa = tetauwiwi = ‘between’  [25%]

     txahteewal = “there are so many of them there”  [25%]

Uteneyik = uteneyik = ‘villages’  [99%]

     *ooteenayiik = “that which is a town”  (Is this form really attested for present Teaneck?)  [99%]

Wackraw = woakawi = ‘round about’  [50%]

     waakeew = “it is curved”  [50%]

Wanaqua or Wenackie = linhacki = ‘barren highlands’  [1%]

     *wiinakung = “place of sassafras”  [50%]

Warepeake = woapak = ‘water beech’ or ‘sycamore’  [25%]

     waalpeekw = “turn-hole” (i.e., “whirlpool”) or “water-hole”  [75%]

Weequackick = wiquajek = ‘head of the creek’  [25%]

     *wihkwaskeekw = “the end of the swamp”  [75%]

Weremensa = woapiminschi = ‘chestnut tree’  [1%]

     *xweelamunzal = “a lot of little fish”  [50%]

Wiehaeken (Wiehaekse on the map) = weeqsha-achtenne = ‘rocky point’ or ‘edge of the mountain’  [1%]

     ???

Winocksack = wisachgak = ‘black oak’  [1%]

     ???  

Wiquaskeck = wiquajek = ‘head of the creek’  [1%]

     (same as Weequackick)

Wissawektuns (on the map, but not interpreted)

     *wiisaawahtun = “yellow mountain”  [50%]

Wychoos = wicu or wikheu = ‘he lives there’ or ‘he builds a house’  [1%]

     (not a Delaware name)

Yanutakah = yu undach or wund-achga = ‘at the hill on this side of the river’  [50%]

     (same as Iandakaugh)

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#2 Jul-04-2009 12:41:am

Chevy
Member
Registered: Aug-01-2007
Posts: 1577

Re: BCHS map of Munsee placenames

Aschatking = tachtschaunge and woaktschachne = ‘where a river bends around a hill’ or ‘at the narrows of a river’  [1%]

     *askeetkung = “green (i.e., “unripe”) fertile lowland”  [50%]

That makes perfect sense to me.

I looked at some; will look at all when I'm not so tired. Thanks, sschaak.

sschkaak, are you the person that posted the story about the pine? tree on the hill?

whoever posted it, posted it several years ago. If it was you, I'd love to read that story again.

Thanks, Martha

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#3 Jul-04-2009 12:53:am

Chevy
Member
Registered: Aug-01-2007
Posts: 1577

Re: BCHS map of Munsee placenames

It was you, almost 4 yrs ago. smile trees, not tree smile

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